There were 30 years of IRA terrorism in the UK, and then it was us. Now the recent horrific attacks in Mumbai have shown how difficult it is for developing states to be safe from terrorism. Since 2005, this is the fourth major attack in India, following bomb blasts and machine gun attacks in Delhi, Bangalore and Mumbai. Will this lead to war between India and Pakistan?

Unlike previous attacks in India, this time the terrorists came via sea, firing indiscriminately rather than using bombs and specifically targeting numerous centers. The variation in method as well as the professionalism imply a collaboration between four possible groups: Al Qaeda or a similar outfit; Pakistan’s Inter Services Intelligence, which has long been suspected of training and equipping terrorist initiatives against India; homegrown Indian groups like the Deccan Mujahedeen, which has actually claimed responsibility for the current attack; and members of the Mumbai underworld.

While the first three have motivations extending from dislike of a non-Muslim secular state to weakening a critical enemy to exacting revenge for perceived crimes against Muslims, the latter two have the local support that makes their involvement crucial. This might explain differing objectives stated at various times by the terrorists?in one case warning India to vacate Muslim lands (a clear reference to Kashmir), and in another purportedly responding to Indian support of US foreign policy.

However, specifically targeting American and British tourists is not an effective way to invite international sympathy for the Kashmir question, so it is more likely that statement was made to give the appearance of Kashmiri nationalism. The fact that varying targets?a caf

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