In 1920 Czech writer Karel Kapek wrote a science-fiction play whose title translated into English as Rossum’s Universal Robots or R.U.R. When it premiered in 1921, it introduced the word ‘Robot’ to the English language and to the science fiction genre. By 1923, it had been translated into 30 languages.

The robots in R.U.R. are closer in nature to cyborgs or androids. Manufactured from synthetic organic materials and capable of independent thought, they are at first content to serve the humans they so closely resemble – but ultimately rebel and wipe them out as useless impediments to their own existence.
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