In the spring of 2013, arctic melt increased dramatically, leading to cooler than normal mid-latitude temperatures as cold melt water flooded the northern oceans. At the same time, polar ice withdrew at record speed. The combination of warm, humid air rising across the middle US from the Gulf of Mexico and colder than normal spring air flowing across the region from the Pacific Northwest means that the spring tornado season is liable to remain active into midsummer, and return again in September-October.
Warming than normal water temperatures across the south-central Atlantic Ocean from Cape Verde in Africa to the Caribbean has led the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to predict a more active than normal hurricane season for 2013.
After a record summer of arctic melt in 2012, methane emissions from melting permafrost and tundra continued to threaten the stability of the arctic climate, and any future summer could bring unprecedented warming to the region.
READING THE CLIMATE WATCH INDEX: The index is oriented toward the Northern Hemisphere. It checks ice, sea water warmth and current flow, and weather conditions at key points in the arctic. There is also a reading of solar activity, as there is some indication of a relationship between solar storms and weather changes on earth. In general, abnormally high arctic temperatures and low Gulf Stream flow in the winter will mean that the jet stream will be looping far north and south, causing violent weather in the middle latitudes. Extreme summer heat in the arctic will result in more heat further south, and a radical temperature differential between north and south will bring heavy weather across continental areas of Europe and North America. But weather and climate are very complex, and these are never more than probabilities. Movement of the jet stream into the high arctic due to abnormally warm North Atlantic water temperatures during the September--April period indicates probable violent weather in Europe and eastern North America.